Disclosure of conflicts of interest/competing interests

Status: PENDING DECISION 

Pending Notice: These recommendations are pending a decision from the JATS Standing committee regarding the inclusion of “COI-statement” as part of the documentation.

 Context

<author-notes>, <contrib-group>, <contrib>, <fn>

Objective of these recommendations

To enable machines to identify Conflicts of Interest (COI)/competing interests statements as they pertain to the contributor(s) of a particular article.

Description

This recommendation contains best practices for tagging COI statements in article-level metadata.

N.B.This recommendation suggests the use of @fn-type=“COI-statement” over @fn-type=“conflict” when possible, because “conflict” carries a higher potential to be misinterpreted as indicating the existence of a conflict within the paper rather than just the existence of a COI statement. However, it is also acknowledged that prior to JATS Version 1.2 @fn-type was a restricted value in Blue and thus @fn-type=“conflict” is still endorsed by this recommendation when used for the sake of backwards compatibility in Blue.

Additional reading

Recommendations

  1. Statement placement. Put the COI in a <fn> element within the <author-notes> section of the <front>
  2. <fn> Use @fn-type=”COI-statement” to identify the footnote as a COI statement
  3. Linking COI statements to contributors. An article can contain one or more COI statements and the statement(s) can be linked to individual contributors, though this linking is not required. In cases where these linkages to exist in the XML, use an <xref> element with an @ref-type=”author-notes” and assign it an @rid as needed

Examples

Example 1: A single COI statement that applies that to all contributors. Not explicitly linked to individual contributors in the XML.

 <contrib-group>
    <contrib contrib-type="author">
       <string-name>
          <given-names>Rafer</given-names>
          <surname>Alston</surname>
       </string-name>
   </contrib>
   <contrib contrib-type="author">
      <string-name>
         <given-names>Antonio</given-names>
         <surname>Davis</surname>
         </string-name>
   </contrib>
 <author-notes>
 <fn fn-type="COI-statement">
 <p>Competing Interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.</p>
 </fn>
 </author-notes>
</contrib-group>

Example 2: A single COI statement that applies that to all contributors. The statements are explicitly linked to individual contributors in the XML using <id> and <xref> elements.

<contrib-group>
 <contrib contrib-type="author">
 <string-name>
 <given-names>Jerome</given-names>
 <surname>Williams</surname>
 </string-name>
 <xref ref-type="author-notes" rid="con1"/>
 </contrib>
 <contrib contrib-type="author">
 <string-name>
 <given-names>Morris</given-names>
 <surname>Peterson</surname>
 <xref ref-type="author-notes" rid="con1"/>
 </string-name>
 </contrib>
 </contrib-group>
 <author-notes>
 <fn fn-type="COI-statement" id="con1">
 <p>Competing Interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.</p>
 </fn>
 </author-notes>

Example 3: Multiple COI statements, each linked to individual contributors in the XML.

 <contrib contrib-type="author">
 <string-name>
 <given-names>Alvin</given-names>
 <surname>Williams</surname>
 </string-name>
 <xref ref-type="author-notes" rid="con1"/>
 </contrib>
 <contrib contrib-type="author">
 <string-name>
 <given-names>Voshon</given-names>
 <surname>Lenard</surname>
 <xref ref-type="author-notes" rid="con2"/>
 </string-name>
 </contrib>
 </contrib-group>
 
 <author-notes>
 <fn fn-type="COI-statement" id="con1">
 <p>Conflicts of Interest Statement: Alvin Williams is a member of the Health 
 Technology Assessment (HTA) Primary Care, Community and Preventive 
 Interventions (PCCPI) Panel. In the last 3 years he has
 received speaker&#x02019;s honoraria for speaking at sponsored meetings or
 satellite symposia at conferences from the following companies, marketing
 respiratory and allergy products: Aerocrine, GlaxoSmithKline (GSK) and Novartis
 International AG. He has received honoraria for attending advisory panels with
 Aerocrine, AstraZeneca, Boehringer Ingelheim, GSK and Novartis. He has received
 sponsorship to attend international scientific meetings from GSK and AstraZeneca
 and has received funding for research projects from GSK. He is a member of the
 British Thoracic Society (BTS)/Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network
 (SIGN) Asthma Guideline Group and the National Institute for Health and Care
 Excellence (NICE) Asthma Guideline Group.</p>
 </fn>
 <fn fn-type="COI-statement" id="con2">
 <p>Conflicts of Interest Statement: Voshon Lenard is Editor-in-Chief of the
 <italic>Programme Grants for Applied Research</italic> journal and is a
 member of the National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) Journals Library
 Board.</p>
 </fn>
 </author-notes>